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dc.contributor.authorNalesso, Paulo Roberto Lopesen_US
dc.contributor.authorVedovatto, Matheusen_US
dc.contributor.authorGregório, Julia Eduarda Schneideren_US
dc.contributor.authorHuang, Boyangen_US
dc.contributor.authorVyas, Cianen_US
dc.contributor.authorSantamaria-Jr, Miltonen_US
dc.contributor.authorBártolo, Pauloen_US
dc.contributor.authorCaetano, Guilherme Ferreiraen_US
dc.identifier.citationNalesso, P. R. L., Vedovatto, M., Gregório, J. E. S., Huang, B., Vyas, C., Santamaria-Jr, M., Bártolo, P. & Caetano, G. F. (2023). Early in vivo osteogenic and inflammatory response of 3D printed polycaprolactone/carbon nanotube/hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate composite scaffolds. Polymers, 15(13), 2952-.
dc.description.abstractThe development of advanced biomaterials and manufacturing processes to fabricate biologically and mechanically appropriate scaffolds for bone tissue is a significant challenge. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a biocompatible and degradable polymer used in bone tissue engineering, but it lacks biofunctionalization. Bioceramics, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and β tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), which are similar chemically to native bone, can facilitate both osteointegration and osteoinduction whilst improving the biomechanics of a scaffold. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) display exceptional electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. A major limitation is the understanding of how PCL-based scaffolds containing HA, TCP, and CNTs behave in vivo in a bone regeneration model. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of three-dimensional (3D) printed PCL-based composite scaffolds containing CNTs, HA, and β-TCP during the initial osteogenic and inflammatory response phase in a critical bone defect rat model. Gene expression related to early osteogenesis, the inflammatory phase, and tissue formation was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Tissue formation and mineralization were assessed by histomorphometry. The CNT+HA/TCP group presented higher expression of osteogenic genes after seven days. The CNT+HA and CNT+TCP groups stimulated higher gene expression for tissue formation and mineralization, and pro- and anti-inflammatory genes after 14 and 30 days. Moreover, the CNT+TCP and CNT+HA/TCP groups showed higher gene expressions related to M1 macrophages. The association of CNTs with ceramics at 10wt% (CNT+HA/TCP) showed lower expressions of inflammatory genes and higher osteogenic, presenting a positive impact and balanced cell signaling for early bone formation. The association of CNTs with both ceramics promoted a minor inflammatory response and faster bone tissue formation.en_US
dc.rights© 2023 The authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Mechanical engineeringen_US
dc.titleEarly in vivo osteogenic and inflammatory response of 3D printed polycaprolactone/carbon nanotube/hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate composite scaffoldsen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.researchSingapore Centre for 3D Printingen_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsCarbon Nanotubesen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis project was partially supported by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) grant number 2018/21167-4, by CNPq (“Conselho Nacional do Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico”) grant number 423710/2018-4 and also by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (UK) Doctor Prize Fellowship (EP/R513131/1).en_US
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