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dc.contributor.authorWong, Jia Yien_US
dc.contributor.authorAzam, Abu Bakren_US
dc.contributor.authorCao, Qien_US
dc.contributor.authorHuang, Lihuien_US
dc.contributor.authorXie, Yuanen_US
dc.contributor.authorWinkler, Ingriden_US
dc.contributor.authorCai, Yiyuen_US
dc.identifier.citationWong, J. Y., Azam, A. B., Cao, Q., Huang, L., Xie, Y., Winkler, I. & Cai, Y. (2024). Evaluations of virtual and augmented reality technology-enhanced learning for higher education. Electronics, 13(8), 1549-.
dc.description.abstractVirtual reality (VR) has good potential to promote technology-enhanced learning. Students can benefit from immersive visualization and intuitive interaction in their learning of abstract concepts, complex structures, and dynamic processes. This paper is interested in evaluating the effects of VR learning games in a Virtual and Augmented Reality Technology-Enhanced Learning (VARTeL) environment within an engineering education setting. A VARTeL flipped classroom is established in the HIVE learning hub at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) Singapore for the immersive and interactive learning. Experiments are designed for the university students conducting the learning, with three interactive and immersive VR games related to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), i.e., virtual cells, a virtual F1 racing car, and vector geometry. These VR games are a part of the VARTeL apps designed in-house at NTU for STEM education. Quantitative and qualitative analyses are performed. A total of 156 students from Mechanical Engineering participated in the experiment. There are 15 participants selected for an interview after the experiment. Pre-tests and post-tests are performed using two different models, the developed VARTeL and the modified Technology-Rich Outcome-Focused Learning Environment Inventory (TROFLEI), in order to measure the efficiency of the VARTeL environment in Higher Education. Significant improvements of about 24.8% are observed for the post-tests over the pre-tests, which illustrate the effectiveness of the VARTeL for Engineering education. Details of the VR simulation games, methods of data collection, data analyses, as well as the experiment results are discussed. It is observed from the results that all the underlying scales of the modified TROFLEI are above the threshold for the ‘Good’ category, indicating that a very reliable questionnaire is designed in this research. The mean ‘Ideal’ values are about 0.7–2.6% higher than the mean ‘Actual’ values. The limitations of the experiment and future works with recommendations are also presented in this paper.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Education (MOE)en_US
dc.rights© 2024 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).en_US
dc.titleEvaluations of virtual and augmented reality technology-enhanced learning for higher educationen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineeringen_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsLearning efficiency evaluationen_US
dc.subject.keywordsHigher educationen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis research is funded by Singapore’s Ministry of Education under the Tertiary Education Research Fund (MOE2018—TRF-006).en_US
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