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Title: 反霸权结构 :马来西亚纲领性文件的华教诉求 (1983-2010) = Acting against hegemony : Chinese education struggle in Malaysia's programmatic documents (1983-2010)
Authors: 雷秋明 Loi Chew Ming
Keywords: DRNTU::Humanities
Issue Date: 2014
Abstract: 在马来西亚,华文教育从来都不是也不能是单纯的教育事业,反之得和马来霸权政治持续抗衡才能够有效的运作下去。本研究结合马来西亚政治和华文教育作一体的探讨,从霸权理论的角度尝试完善马来西亚政治属于霸权政治的论述,进而探 究如此的政体如何影响华教的生存和发展。华教和政治纠缠不清的关系产生了独特的华教运动,激发华团反霸权的社会力量,开展成为丰硕的社会运动。华团选择了不同的手段对抗马来霸权,其中包括提呈纲领性文件。华团所提呈的文件是本文研究的对象,共有四份,即《1983 年国家文化备忘录》、《1985 年华团联合宣言》、《1999 年华人社团大选诉求》以及《2010 年行动方略》。文件的内容涵盖华社对政治、经济、文化、教育、环境和社会等的诉求,其中的教育诉求是本文欲探索的范畴。教育诉求从一开始对华教的陈诉渐变对国家教育的想象,种种诉求和想望积累形成一套独特的华教论述。华教论述随着政局的改变、人民要求的增减或国际局势而出现变化。华教场域受到马来霸权结构化的影响,华教论述也因此有所转变。 华教论述所制造的政治筹码的多寡决定了华团在华教场域里以及华教在国家教育场域里的位置。此外,华教先辈在 1950 年代所营造的抗争氛围形塑成为华教场域的运行规律,支撑着华社至今仍不断以华教运动实践反霸权。 In Malaysia, the Chinese education has never been an educational system per se. It has to fight against the Malay hegemony in order to ensure its operation. This study draws upon Gramsci's theory of hegemony to explore the inseparable relationship between Malaysian politics and the Chinese education. It argues how Malay hegemony has influenced the sector of Chinese education. The entangled relationship between Chinese education and the politics gave rise to the Chinese education movements, stimulating the counter-hegemony from the Chinese social organizations and educational bodies. The powers successfully promote the Chinese education movements to develop into social movements. The Chinese social organizations and educational bodies employ different methods to deconstruct Malay hegemonic power, for instance they propose some programmatic documents to the government: “Memorandum of National Culture” (1983), “Joint Declaration of Chinese Associations” (1985), “Malaysian Chinese Organizations Election Appeal” (1999) and the latest “Plan of Action for Malaysia” (2010). The contents consist of demands for rights in the politics, economics, culture, education, environment and society. The educational demands in these documents are the main scope of study in this research project. The educational struggle initially intended to claim the rights of Chinese education in Malaysia subsequently they expanded to the scale of national education. These demands and desires have amounted to a unique Chinese education discourse. The changes in Chinese education discourse occur in accord with the political situation, peoples’ demands and international situation. The “field” of Chinese Education has been influenced by Malay hegemony and thus Chinese education discourse has evolved accordingly. Political capitals which are accumulated by Chinese education discourse has determined the position of the Chinese social organizations and education bodies in the field of Chinese education, as well as the Chinese education in the national education. Since 1950s, the Chinese predecessors had created the atmosphere of protest and had shaped the trend of the Chinese education field. This regularities trend has been supporting Chinese society to use Chinese education movements as a counter-hegemony practice against the Malay hegemony. Keywords: Chinese education, Programmatic Documents, Chinese social organizations, Dongjiaozong, Malay hegemony.
Schools: School of Humanities and Social Sciences 
Fulltext Permission: restricted
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:HSS Theses

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