Synthesis and design of planar microstrip bandpass filters with multi-mode resonators
Date of Issue2013
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Planar microwave bandpass filters (BPFs) are an essential component in many communication systems. Traditional BPF design focuses on the application of frequency-invariant K-/J-inverters inserted between the two resonant modes or served as the external coupling to feed the resonators. This design method is most suitable for narrow bandwidth BPFs, but for wideband cases it is difficult for a direct application. To solve this problem, a synthesis method based on a modified general Chebyshev function and the Richard’s transformation has been proposed to characterize the frequency response over the whole frequency range for the wideband BPF designs. As for the corresponding circuit structure, short-circuited stepped-impedance multi-mode resonators (MMRs) serve as the foundation to the designs in this dissertation. By parallel-connecting or folding the MMRs, a class of dual-wideband BPFs has been developed. Based on the above discussion, this dissertation presents the wideband BPF designs in two aspects, the proposed filter synthesis procedure and a new class of circuit structures to realize the target filtering responses. As the foundation of this research work, short-circuited MMRs have been researched in the first place for a single-wideband BPF design. n sections of cascaded commensurate lines are used to group the resonances, and short-ended stubs are shunt on its two sides to inductively feed the MMR. For the filter design, a Chebyshev filtering function is used to characterize the frequency response of the circuit. By equating the filtering function to the transfer function of the circuit, the design parameters are obtained. The first set of dual-wideband BPFs is formed by parallel-connecting two dissimilar single-wideband BPFs, both formed by stepped-impedance MMRs. The two transmitting paths of 180o phase difference are used to generate up to two pairs of transmission zeroes (TZs) with symmetry to the dual-wide passbands. By appropriately choosing the characteristic impedances of the two paralleled MMRs, one pair of TZs is located in real frequencies contributing to the attenuation between the two passbands, whereas the second pair of TZs is located in imaginary frequencies adjusting the group delay within the passbands. The short-circuited stubs, in shunt connection on the two sides of the MMR, act as the inductive loading element to feed the MMR and to flatten the passband. In the meanwhile, they introduce TZs at multiple of π to suppress the DC-component. Following a similar design principle, the second set of dual-wideband BPF has been proposed as an improved design in terms of realizing a more compact size, the greater flexibility in terms of reflection zeros in the passband and an extra degree of freedom in choosing characteristic impedances. The generic structure of the proposed filters is formed by folding a MMR along its symmetrical plane and by coupling a pair of short-circuited stubs on the two ends of the MMR. Thus, two signal transmitting paths, one from the folded MMR and another from the loaded stubs, are used to generate additional TZs between the two passbands. By increasing sections of the loaded MMR, the reflection zeros in the passband is enlarged. Under fully-coupled structure, the merit of compact size and extra design freedom is obtained. For these two sets of dual-wideband BPFs mentioned above, the even-/odd-mode analysis method has been used to derive the transfer function to characterize their frequency responses. Given the properties of the proposed filters, the commonly used generalized Chebyshev filtering function as well as its transferred dual-band function is not appropriately used herein. Instead, a generalized Chebyshev filtering function, originally developed for a single-wideband BPF design, is readily applied. By directly formulating a filtering function with mirror to the origin, it has dual passbands respectively located at positive and negative frequency ranges. To accurately account for the wideband response, a TZ is assigned at the origin. Next, the Richard’s transformation is applied to transfer the normalized frequency response to its dual-band counterpart. With this proposed synthesis procedure, the targeted filtering function is characterized by a ratio of two polynomials. By equating these two aforementioned functions, which are the ideal filtering function from the specifications and the transfer function from the circuits, all the circuit design parameters are obtained. Finally, the proposed single-/dual-wideband bandpass filters have been synthesized and designed for practical implementation. The experimental results of the fabricated filter circuits have strongly verified these new filter structures and their corresponding synthesis method proposed.
DRNTU::Engineering::Electrical and electronic engineering::Antennas, wave guides, microwaves, radar, radio