现代汉语反义词的类别分析以及新加坡华裔中学生对相对反义词的辨析研究 = An analysis of Chinese antonyms and an investigation of their usage by secondary school ethnic Chinese students in Singapore
王伟 Wang Wei
Date of Issue2016
School of Humanities and Social Sciences
本文的研究焦点有两个：一是现代汉语反义词，特别是相对反义词的研究；二是中国大陆汉语母语者，新加坡成人华语母语者及新加坡中学生对相对反义词的辨析研究。本研究将理论研究和实证研究相结合，首先对现代汉语中的反义词，尤其是相对反义词，进行了分类别的研究。然后通过问卷调查，分析了中国大陆汉语母语者、新加坡成人华语母语者及华裔中学生在反义词使用上的特点。从语义学角度（Cruse 1986 , 2001），本文把汉语的反义词分为了四类。从量级结构（scale structure）的角度(Kennedy & McNally, 2005;Kennedy, 2007)，本文把汉语的反义词分为了五类。本文提出了区分汉语互补反义词和相对反义词的框架标准。不同于沈家煊（1999）以“虚比”句来划分相对反义词，本文提出了划分相对反义词的两个句法框架。此外，本文还从义位层面对三类相对反义词的语义特征进行了分析，指出了义位上的差异是导致其使用上呈现出对称或不对称的深层原因。实证研究部分从动态的角度分析了反义词的具体使用情况。本文发现中国汉语母语者和新加坡成人华语母语者在相对反义词的使用上基本是一致的。我们着重分析讨论了年级、华文程度、家庭语言背景、方言背景等因素对新加坡中学生相对反义词掌握的影响，我们认为影响新加坡中学生相对反义词掌握的主要因素是其华文程度的高低。这一研究结果将对今后中学生的华语教学有参考意义。 This thesis attempts to study antonyms in Modern Chinese, gradable anonyms in particular, and the usage of gradable antonyms by adult native speakers of Chinese in Mainland China, adult native speakers of Chinese in Singapore and the ethnic Chinese students in Singapore. This thesis combines a theoretical analysis and an empirical study of antonyms in Modern Chinese. It departs from the classifications of antonyms in Modern Chinese in terms of semantics and moves on to the usage comparisons of gradable antonyms based on a self-designed questionnaire answered by adult native speakers of Chinese in Mainland China, adult native speakers of Chinese in Singapore and the ethnic Chinese students in Singapore. From the perspective of lexical semantics proposed by Cruse (1986, 2001), the antonyms could be classified into four types. Based on the scale structure (Kennedy & McNally, 2005; Kennedy, 2007), the antonyms were classified into five types in this study. Criteria for distinguishing complementary antonyms and gradable antonyms were also proposed. Different from Shen’s method (1999) that classifies gradable antonyms through pesudo-comparatives, this study proposed two other criteria for the classification of gradable antonyms into three types. In addition, the semantic features of each sememe of these antonyms were analyzed. The results show that it was the differences between the sememes of the antonymous pairs that could led to the symmetry or asymmetry in the usage of the pairs. In the empirical part of the study, it was found that the usage of gradable antonyms were quite consistent between native speakers in Mainland China and those in Singapore. The effects of grade, Chinese profiency level, family language and dialect were also studied on the usage of gradable antonyms in secondary school ethnic Chinese students in Singapore. The results show that the ethnic Chinese students’ Chinese profiency level played a major role in their competent use of antonyms. That is, the higher their Chinese proficience was, the more properly they could use the Mandarin antonyms. The study results can be useful references for the Chinese language teaching to secondary school students in Singapore.