On the design of energy storage systems for the smoothing and dispatch planning of large-scale wind power generation
Date of Issue2016
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
The demand on energy supply increases continuously as economies develop and world population grows. Most of the energy in the world comes from the fossil fuels and the increase in energy demand accelerates the rate of depleting the fossil fuel resources. As fossil fuel is finite and also due to the environmental considerations, renewable energy (RE) resources have been actively developed as the alternative sources for electricity generation. Renewable sources used for large-scale electricity production can include wind, photovoltaic (PV), waves and so on. Among all the RE resources, wind power generation is witnessing rapid developments in recent years. Unfortunately, wind tends to be unsteady. The fluctuating and uncertain output powers from wind farms can be problematic, especially if there is a high penetration level of the renewable source in a grid system. The fluctuations may lead to excessive voltage variations and unacceptable degree of frequency deviations. Moreover, the unsteady and uncertain input wind power can cause firm power dispatch commitment from wind farms a difficult task. Expensive generation reserves have to be provided for grid system to ensure adequate level of system security and reliability is guaranteed. In fact, power generation from wind farms has often been excluded in the dispatch planning of the grids. Unless other viable techniques can be found, the above issues can constitute major impediment to the successful large-scale integration of wind power generation into grid systems. In this connection, the use of energy storage system (ESS) is one possible solution to mitigate the negative impacts of the unsteady wind power on electricity supply systems and to improve on the dispatchability of the wind power. In this investigation, in order to smoothen the fluctuations in the wind and to realize the dispatch planning of the wind power in a way similar to that of conventional generators, it is proposed that a three-level ESS is incorporated in a large-scale wind power generation scheme. In essence, at cluster-level of wind turbine generators (WTG), the solution involves having the high- and mid-frequency components of the aggregated wind power routed to supercapacitors (SC) and battery banks respectively of a battery-supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system (BSHESS) by a high-pass filter (HPF) and a band-pass filter (BPF). It then results in the smoothening of the wind power harnessed by the cluster. In this thesis, the BSHESS control scheme to reduce the wind power perturbations has been shown. A statistical method is also developed to determine the capacities of the minimum-cost BSHESS to meet the power smoothing objective at pre-specified probability level. Application of the proposed design approach is demonstrated using data obtained from an existing wind farm. As for dispatch planning, attention is to use a low-pass filter (LPF) to extract the low-frequency intrinsic mode and residue functions of wind power. The relatively slow-changing characteristics of the low-frequency wind power components, which contain most of the energy in the wind power, allow accurate forecasts of the power components to be obtained using artificial neural network (ANN). Dispatch planning of the wind power is then realized through buffering the low-frequency power fluctuations by a proposed power flows control strategy applied to a pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) system. Focusing on low-frequency wind power for dispatch planning is a distinct advantage over the dispatch planning methods proposed by other researchers. Furthermore, a statistical method to determine the power and energy capacities of the PHS is included. The efficacy of the developed approach to dispatch planning is again illustrated based on data obtained from an existing wind farm. In all the above works, suitable cut-off frequencies for the HPF, BPF and LPF are derived based on the developed concept of minimum overlap energy and the outcome of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) analysis. EMD method is used to gain insights into the frequency-time characteristics of wind power. In this manner, the wind power can then be grouped into high-, mid- and low-frequency bands.
DRNTU::Engineering::Electrical and electronic engineering::Electric power::Production, transmission and distribution