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Title: 踏入、冲击、成长 :从华侨银行看本地华人银行的发展 = Venture, shock and growth : a study of local Chinese banks’ development through the Overseas-Chinese Banking Corporation (OCBC)
Authors: 张慧仙 Teo, Hui Xian
Keywords: Social sciences::Economic development
Issue Date: 2019
Abstract: “商业银行”起源自西方国家,是一种提供存款、贷款、汇兑、储蓄等服务的 金融机构。商业银行象征了现代银行的起始。正如其名所指,商业银行业务范围为商 业用途提供了不少便利,因此从成立以来就逐步受到越来越多西方人的欢迎。 另一边,新加坡两百年前开埠。当时,作为英属殖民地,新加坡被发展为重要 的港口,不少商人会来到新加坡进行贸易活动。频繁的贸易来往,自然而然地滋生出 对商业银行的需求。1840 年,新加坡出现第一家商业银行:加尔各答联合银行分行。 此后,新加坡相继出现更多商业银行。这些银行普遍皆来自西方国家,并且使用群一 般上以西方商人为主。 如此看来,可以说商业银行一直都是西方人涉足的。新加坡华人虽也经商,但 和商业银行却没有直接的接触,充其量是一些擅中英双语的华人担任买办,承担银行 和华商之间的中间人。但是,买办的效应并不大。况且,早期华人商业社会中,较依 赖于相互信任、人与人之间的交易,对于正式金融机构的需求也不大。直到 1903 年, 英政府改革货币、华人涉足橡胶业而促使的资金需求增加、以及和买办及银行之间的 沟通困难等一系列环境变化浮现,才出现华商黄亚福决定找人共同设立第一家华人银 行。本地华人正式踏入这个由西方社会引入的金融机构概念。 踏入商业银行领域,可以说是开启一扇新领域的门。此外,华人商业社会中倾 向将往来建立在“人情关系”上,长久下来也已成习惯,如何适应金融机构要求的 “正式性”,也是一项新的挑战。对此,本文将目光投入本地华侨银行,以其为例, 浅谈华人银行如何建立并适应于商业银行的运作、其中面临的挑战及其改变与发展。 Originating from Western countries, commercial banking is a financial institution which provides services such as deposits, loans, currency exchange and savings. Commercial banking marks the beginning of modern banking. As the term suggests, the business scope of commercial banks provided many conveniences for business use. Therefore, commercial banks have managed to gradually be more welcomed by the Westerners since its establishment. On the other hand, Singapore was founded two hundred years ago and was developed as an important port under British colony. Many businessmen came to Singapore for trade. The high frequency of trade naturally bred the demand for commercial banks. In 1840, the first commercial bank in Singapore, The Union Bank of Calcutta’ branch was established. Since then, more commercial banks have begun to emerge in Singapore. These banks were mostly from Western countries and largely dominated by Western merchants. As such, it can be said that the commercial bank has always been initiated by the westerners. Although the Chinese do business as well, they do not have direct interaction with commercial banks. At best, Chinese who were bilingual in Chinese and English served as compradors and undertake intermediaries between banks and Chinese businessmen. However, the effect of compradors is not effective. Moreover, in the early Chinese business community, the call for mutual trust and inter-personal transactions did not require much for formal financial institutions. It was not until 1903 when: the British government reformed the currency; the Chinese who entered the rubber industry had increased demand for funds, and the communication difficulties emerged between the comprador and the bank. It was only after the Chinese merchant Wong Ah Fook decided to find someone to set up the first Chinese bank. The local Chinese formally entered the concept of a financial institution introduced by Western society. Stepping into the field of commercial banking can be said to be opening the door to a new field. Besides, the Chinese business community tended to establish contacts by “personal relationship”. This became a habit over the years. How to adapt to the "formality" required by financial institutions is also a new challenge. Hence, this article will focus on the local OCBC Bank, using it as an example to discuss how Chinese banks established and adapt themselves to the operation of commercial banks, the challenges they faced and their changes and development.
Rights: Nanyang Technological University
Fulltext Permission: restricted
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:SoH Student Reports (FYP/IA/PA/PI)

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