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Title: A biological micro actuator : graded and closed-loop control of insect leg motion by electrical stimulation of muscles
Authors: Cao, Feng
Zhang, Chao
Vo Doan, Tat Thang
Li, Yao
Sangi, Daniyal Haider
Koh, Jie Sheng
Huynh, Ngoc Anh
Aziz, Mohamed Fareez Bin
Choo, Hao Yu
Ikeda, Kazuo
Abbeel, Pieter
Maharbiz, Michel M.
Sato, Hirotaka
Issue Date: 2014
Source: Cao, F., Zhang, C., Vo Doan, T. T., Li, Y., Sangi, D. H., Koh, J. S., et al. (2014). A biological micro actuator : graded and closed-loop control of insect leg motion by electrical stimulation of muscles. PLoS ONE, 9(8), e105389-.
Series/Report no.: PLoS One
Abstract: In this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle) via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction, levation/depression, and extension/flexion. We observed that the threshold amplitude (voltage) required to elicit leg motions was approximately 1.0 V; thus, we fixed the stimulation amplitude at 1.5 V to ensure a muscle response. The leg motions were finely graded by alternation of the stimulation frequencies: higher stimulation frequencies elicited larger leg angular displacement. A closedloop control system was then developed, where the stimulation frequency was the manipulated variable for leg-muscle stimulation (output from the final control element to the leg muscle) and the angular displacement of the leg motion was the system response. This closed-loop control system, with an optimized proportional gain and update time, regulated the leg to set at predetermined angular positions. The average electrical stimulation power consumption per muscle group was 148 mW. These findings related to and demonstrations of the leg motion control offer promise for the future development of a reliable, low-power, biological legged machine (i.e., an insect–machine hybrid legged robot).
ISSN: 1932-6203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105389
Rights: © 2014 Cao et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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