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Title: Determination of urine-derived odorous compounds in a source separation sanitation system
Authors: Liu, Bianxia
Giannis, Apostolos
Chen, Ailu
Zhang, Jiefeng
Wang, Jing-Yuan
Chang, Victor Wei-Chung
Keywords: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Source separation
Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS)
Odor emissions
Urine hydrolysis
Issue Date: 2016
Source: Liu, B., Giannis, A., Chen, A., Zhang, J., Chang, V. W. C.,& Wang, J. Y. (2016). Determination of urine-derived odorous compounds in a source separation sanitation system. Journal of Environmental Sciences, in press.
Series/Report no.: Journal of Environmental Sciences
Abstract: Source separation sanitation systems have attracted more and more attention recently. However, separate urine collection and treatment could induce odor issues, especially in large scale application. In order to avoid such issues, it is necessary to monitor the odor related compounds that might be generated during urine storage. This study investigated the odorous compounds that emitted from source-separated human urine under different hydrolysis conditions. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of temperature, stale/fresh urine ratio and urine dilution on odor emissions. It was found that ammonia, dimethyl disulfide, allyl methyl sulfide and 4-heptanone were the main odorous compounds generated from human urine, with headspace concentrations hundreds of times higher than their respective odor thresholds. Furthermore, the high temperature accelerated urine hydrolysis and liquid–gas mass transfer, resulting a remarkable increase of odor emissions from the urine solution. The addition of stale urine enhanced urine hydrolysis and expedited odor emissions. On the contrary, diluted urine emitted less odorous compounds ascribed to reduced concentrations of odorant precursors. In addition, this study quantified the odor emissions and revealed the constraints of urine source separation in real-world applications. To address the odor issue, several control strategies are recommended for odor mitigation or elimination from an engineering perspective.
ISSN: 1001-0742
DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2016.04.013
Rights: © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Fulltext Permission: none
Fulltext Availability: No Fulltext
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