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dc.contributor.authorYoung, Barnabyen
dc.contributor.authorSadarangani, Sapnaen
dc.contributor.authorYew, Haur Senen
dc.contributor.authorYung, Chee Fuen
dc.contributor.authorLeo, Yee Sinen
dc.contributor.authorChen, Mark I-Chengen
dc.contributor.authorWilder-Smith, Anneliesen
dc.identifier.citationYoung, B., Sadarangani, S., Yew, H. S., Yung, C. F., Leo, Y. S., Chen, M. I.-C., et al. (2017). The immune response to 6-monthly versus annual standard dose inactivated trivalent influenza vaccination in older people: study protocol for a randomised clinical trial. Trials, 18(67).en
dc.description.abstractBackground: The seasonal influenza vaccine is less effective in older people and a single dose is unlikely to provide the year-round protection necessary for tropical climates which have year-round influenza virus activity. This study aims to assess the effect of a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) booster at 180 days on haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titres for each of the influenza strains present in the administered vaccine in older people aged 65 years or above in Singapore. Methods/design: This is a single-centre, randomised, observer-blind, active-comparator controlled, parallel-group, phase IV trial in 200 adults aged 65 years or older. Study participants will be assigned to one of two groups in a 1:1 ratio and followed for 1 year, with five scheduled visits. The control group will receive IIV3 at day 1, and an active comparator (Tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccine) at day 180. Participants in the experimental group will receive IIV3 containing the same strains at day 1 and day 180. Endpoints are immunological, and include measures of HI titres, microneutralisation titres (MN) and cell-mediated immunity from first vaccination up to day 360. Discussion: If superiority of 6-monthly influenza vaccination is demonstrated, this study could form the basis for a larger clinical trial with influenza infection as the primary endpoint. Trial registration:, ID: NCT02655874. Registered on 12 January 2016.en
dc.format.extent9 p.en
dc.rights© 2017 The Author(s). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.en
dc.titleThe immune response to 6-monthly versus annual standard dose inactivated trivalent influenza vaccination in older people: study protocol for a randomised clinical trialen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolLee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine)en
dc.description.versionPublished versionen
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