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Title: Characterization of Singapore RDF resources and analysis of their heating value
Authors: Zhao, Lei
Giannis, Apostolos
Lam, Wan-Yee
Lin, Sheng-Xuan
Yin, Ke
Yuan, Guo-An
Wang, Jing-Yuan
Keywords: RDF
Landfill mining material
Chicken manure
Calorific value
Issue Date: 2016
Source: Zhao, L., Giannis, A., Lam, W.-Y., Lin, S.-X., Yin, K., Yuan, G.-A., et al. (2016). Characterization of Singapore RDF resources and analysis of their heating value. Sustainable Environment Research, 26(1), 51-54.
Series/Report no.: Sustainable Environment Research
Abstract: Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) was formulated from several municipal waste components in Singapore in order to maximize energy efficiency and minimize the environmental impacts. At first, the physicochemical properties (proximate and ultimate analysis, chloro, heavy metals) and the heating values of waste components were analyzed to assess their thermal behaviour. Three RDF prototypes were formulated by combining individual waste type in various fractions with respect to their properties and heating values. Landfill mining material and chicken manure were also involved in the RDF formation as alternative fuel sources. Optimum RDF was formulated consisting of 42% plastics, 41% paper/cardboard, 7% textile and 10% horticultural waste, based on the existing Singapore waste composition. This RDF had a lower heating value of 23.7 MJ kg−1, which was less than mineral fuel but it could meet the fuel requirements given in the European standards. The addition of chicken manure and landfill mining material in RDF lowered the heating value and increased heavy metal concentration, but they are considered good alternative fuel. It is believed that power plants or dedicated incinerators could be potential end-users of RDF in Singapore.
ISSN: 1022-7636
DOI: 10.1016/j.serj.2015.09.003
Schools: School of Civil and Environmental Engineering 
Research Centres: Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute 
Rights: © 2016 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Institute of Environmental Engineering, Taiwan. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:CEE Journal Articles
NEWRI Journal Articles

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