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Title: Pre-Indo-European Relics: The *borm- Root in the European Pre-Latin Context
Authors: Perono Cacciafoco, Francesco
Keywords: reuse and refunctionalization of roots and (loan-)words
(proto-)Indo-European stem *gʷhermó-/ *gʷhormo-
European hydronymy and toponymy
*borm- (> *bormo) root
pre-Indo-European and proto-IndoEuropean
Issue Date: 2015
Source: Perono Cacciafoco, F. (2015). Pre-Indo-European Relics: The *borm- Root in the European Pre-Latin Context. Acta Linguistica: Journal for Theoretical Linguistics, 9(2), 57-69.
Series/Report no.: Acta Linguistica: Journal for Theoretical Linguistics
Abstract: This paper provides an innovative hermeneutic interpretation of the possible pre-Indo-European origins of the root *borm- (> *bormo) ‘warm water, hot water’ according to a new convergent approach. The stem *borm- (> *bormo) is considered in this study as not directly related to the (proto-)Indo-European root *gʷhermó-/ *gʷhormo- ‘warm, hot’. It could be, rather, a trace of the pre-Indo-European linguistic substrate, with the voiced bilabial (/b/) phonetic treatment of the voiced aspirate labiovelar consonant *GwH. The presumably pre-Indo-European root *borm- (> *bormo) would have been, over time, transferred (after the possible «arrival» of the IndoEuropeans in their European territories) in the linguistic system of (proto-)Indo-European through a process of reuse and refunctionalization of roots and (loan-)words due to linguistic contact. Phonetically adapted to the (proto-)Indo-European standards and equated with the stem *gʷhermó-/ *gʷhormo-, the root *borm- (> *bormo) could have been preserved in the hydronymy and toponymy of North-Western Italy, for instance in the river name Bòrmida (water course flowing between Liguria and Southern Piedmont) and in the place name Bòrmio (small town located in Lombardy).
ISSN: 1313-2296
Schools: School of Humanities and Social Sciences 
Rights: © 2015 The Author(s). This paper was published in Acta Linguistica: Journal for Theoretical Linguistics and is made available as an electronic reprint (preprint) with permission of The Author(s). The published version is available at: []. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic or multiple reproduction, distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper is prohibited and is subject to penalties under law.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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