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dc.contributor.authorLiang, Keen
dc.contributor.authorXu, Kemingen
dc.contributor.authorBessarab, Dmitrien
dc.contributor.authorObaje, Jonathanen
dc.contributor.authorXu, Chenjieen
dc.identifier.citationLiang, K., Xu, K., Bessarab, D., Obaje, J., & Xu, C. (2016). Arbutin encapsulated micelles improved transdermal delivery and suppression of cellular melanin production. BMC Research Notes, 9(1), 254-. doi:10.1186/s13104-016-2047-xen
dc.description.abstractBackground: Hyperpigmentation is a skin disorder characterized by elevated production of melanin. Current treatment approaches mainly rely on the application of skin lightening chemicals, most of which have safety issues. Efficacy of delivery of the active ingredients to the target organ has also been a challenge. Transdermal based drug delivery platform has been shown to improve drug bioavailability, avoiding the hepatic first pass metabolism, decrease gastrointestinal side effects, and eventually enhance patient compliance. Results: This article explores the utilization of micellar transdermal delivery technology to improve skin penetration and efficacy of arbutin, a hyperpigmentation agent. The suppression efficacy of cellular melanin production versus cell viability of four active ingredients commonly used in skin lightening products, namely allantoin, arbutin, glycolic acid, and hyaluronic acid were first compared. Arbutin was selected for the micellar delivery studies base on its comparatively low cytotoxicity and better performance in reducing melanin production. Micellar Arbutin cream was formulated using Urah® proprietary micellar technology and was assessed for its cellular melanin suppression efficacy and skin penetration capacity. Conclusion: The results show that micellar arbutin cream improved both the delivery and cellular melanin suppression, suggesting that micellar transdermal delivery may have potential application in addressing hyperpigmentation skin disorders.en
dc.format.extent6 p.en
dc.relation.ispartofseriesBMC Research Notesen
dc.rights© 2016 Liang et al. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.en
dc.subjectMicellar Transdermal Drug Deliveryen
dc.subjectDRNTU::Engineering::Chemical engineeringen
dc.titleArbutin encapsulated micelles improved transdermal delivery and suppression of cellular melanin productionen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Chemical and Biomedical Engineeringen
dc.description.versionPublished versionen
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