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Title: Treatment of multiple-level tracheobronchial stenosis secondary to endobronchial tuberculosis using bronchoscopic balloon dilatation with topical mitomycin-C
Authors: Mohamad Faisal
Hafaruzi Harun
Tidi M. Hassan
Ban, Andrea Y. L.
Sanjay Haresh Chotirmall
Jamalul Azizi Abdul Rahaman
Keywords: Mitomycin-C
Case report
Endobronchial tuberculosis
Bronchoscopic intervention
Issue Date: 2016
Source: Mohamad Faisal, Hafaruzi Harun, Tidi M. Hassan, Ban, A. Y. L., Sanjay Haresh Chotirmall, & Jamalul Azizi Abdul Rahaman. (2016). Treatment of multiple-level tracheobronchial stenosis secondary to endobronchial tuberculosis using bronchoscopic balloon dilatation with topical mitomycin-C. BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 16(1), 53-.
Series/Report no.: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Abstract: Background: Tracheobronchial stenosis is a known complication of endobronchial tuberculosis. Despite antituberculous and steroid therapy, the development of bronchial stenosis is usually irreversible and requires airway patency to be restored by either bronchoscopic or surgical interventions. We report the use of balloon dilatation and topical mitomycin-C to successful restore airway patency. Case presentation: We present a 24-year old lady with previous pulmonary tuberculosis and laryngeal tuberculosis in 2007 and 2013 respectively who presented with worsening dyspnoea and stridor. She had total left lung collapse with stenosis of both the upper trachea and left main bronchus. She underwent successful bronchoscopic balloon and manual rigid tube dilatation with topical mitomycin-C application over the stenotic tracheal segment. A second bronchoscopic intervention was performed after 20 weeks for the left main bronchus stenosis with serial balloon dilatation and topical mitomycin-C application. These interventions led to significant clinical and radiographic improvements. Conclusion: This case highlights that balloon dilatation and topical mitomycin-C application should be considered in selected patients with tracheobronchial stenosis following endobronchial tuberculosis, avoiding airway stenting and invasive surgical intervention.
ISSN: 1471-2466
DOI: 10.1186/s12890-016-0209-1
Schools: Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine) 
Rights: © 2016 Faisal et al. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:LKCMedicine Journal Articles

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