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Title: Estimation of Spatial-Temporal Gait Parameters Using a Low-Cost Ultrasonic Motion Analysis System
Authors: Qi, Yongbin
Soh, Cheong Boon
Gunawan, Erry
Low, Kay-Soon
Thomas, Rijil
Keywords: Ultrasonic sensor
Gait analysis
Walking assessment
Gait kinematics
Wireless sensor network
Issue Date: 2014
Source: Qi, Y., Soh, C. B., Gunawan, E., Low, K.-S., & Thomas, R. (2014). Estimation of Spatial-Temporal Gait Parameters Using a Low-Cost Ultrasonic Motion Analysis System. Sensors, 14(8), 15434-15457.
Series/Report no.: Sensors
Abstract: In this paper, a low-cost motion analysis system using a wireless ultrasonic sensor network is proposed and investigated. A methodology has been developed to extract spatial-temporal gait parameters including stride length, stride duration, stride velocity, stride cadence, and stride symmetry from 3D foot displacements estimated by the combination of spherical positioning technique and unscented Kalman filter. The performance of this system is validated against a camera-based system in the laboratory with 10 healthy volunteers. Numerical results show the feasibility of the proposed system with average error of 2.7% for all the estimated gait parameters. The influence of walking speed on the measurement accuracy of proposed system is also evaluated. Statistical analysis demonstrates its capability of being used as a gait assessment tool for some medical applications.
ISSN: 1424-8220
DOI: 10.3390/s140815434
Rights: © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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