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Title: Eco-friendly streamlined process for sporopollenin exine capsule extraction
Authors: Mundargi, Raghavendra C.
Potroz, Michael G.
Park, Jae Hyeon
Seo, Jeongeun
Tan, Ee-Lin
Lee, Jae Ho
Cho, Nam-Joon
Keywords: Plant Extracts
Issue Date: 2016
Source: Mundargi, R. C., Potroz, M. G., Park, J. H., Seo, J., Tan, E.-L., Lee, J. H., & Cho, N.-J. (2016). Eco-friendly streamlined process for sporopollenin exine capsule extraction. Scientific Reports, 6, 19960-. doi:10.1038/srep19960
Series/Report no.: Scientific Reports
Abstract: Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) extracted from Lycopodium clavatum spores are an attractive biomaterial possessing a highly robust structure suitable for microencapsulation strategies. Despite several decades of research into SEC extraction methods, the protocols commonly used for L. clavatum still entail processing with both alkaline and acidolysis steps at temperatures up to 180 °C and lasting up to 7 days. Herein, we demonstrate a significantly streamlined processing regimen, which indicates that much lower temperatures and processing durations can be used without alkaline lysis. By employing CHN elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and dynamic image particle analysis (DIPA), the optimum conditions for L. clavatum SEC processing were determined to include 30 hours acidolysis at 70 °C without alkaline lysis. Extending these findings to proof-of-concept encapsulation studies, we further demonstrate that our SECs are able to achieve a loading of 0.170 ± 0.01 g BSA per 1 g SECs by vacuum-assisted loading. Taken together, our streamlined processing method and corresponding characterization of SECs provides important insights for the development of applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, personal care products, and foods.
DOI: 10.1038/srep19960
Schools: School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering 
School of Materials Science & Engineering 
Research Centres: Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science 
Rights: © 2016 The Authors (Nature Publishing Group). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:MSE Journal Articles
SCBE Journal Articles

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