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Title: Stress and mass changes at a “wet” volcano: Example during the 2011-2012 volcanic unrest at Kawah Ijen volcano (Indonesia)
Authors: Caudron, Corentin
Lecocq, Thomas
Syahbana, Devy K.
McCausland, Wendy
Watlet, Arnaud
Camelbeeck, Thierry
Bernard, Alain
Keywords: Seismic noise cross correlation
Volcano monitoring
Volcanic lake
Velocity variation
Volcanic tremor
Hydrothermal system
Issue Date: 2015
Source: Caudron, C., Lecocq, T., Syahbana, D. K., McCausland, W., Watlet, A., Camelbeeck, T., et al. (2015). Stress and mass changes at a “wet” volcano: Example during the 2011-2012 volcanic unrest at Kawah Ijen volcano (Indonesia). Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 120(7), 5117-5134.
Series/Report no.: Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
Abstract: Since 2010, Kawah Ijen volcano has been equipped with seismometers, and its extremely acid volcanic lake has been monitored using temperature and leveling sensors, providing unprecedented time resolution of multiparametric data for an acidic volcanic lake. The nature of stress and mass changes of the volcano is studied by combining seismic analyses and volcanic lake measurements that were made during the strongest unrest ever recorded by the seismic network at Kawah Ijen. The distal VT earthquake swarm that occurred in May 2011 was the precursor of volcanic unrest in October 2011 that caused an increase in shallow earthquakes. The proximal VT earthquakes opened pathways for fluids to ascend by increasing the permeability of the rock matrix. The following months were characterized by two periods of strong heat and mass discharge into the lake and by the initiation of monochromatic tremor (MT) activity when steam/gases interacted with shallow portions of the aquifer. Significant seismic velocity variations, concurrent with water level rises in which water contained a large amount of steam/gas, were associated with the crises, that caused an although the unrest did not affect the shallow hydrothermal system at a large scale. Whereas shallow VT earthquakes likely reflect a magmatic intrusion, MT and relative seismic velocity changes are clearly associated with shallow hydrothermal processes. These results will facilitate the forecast of future crises.
ISSN: 2169-9313
DOI: 10.1002/2014JB011590
Research Centres: Earth Observatory of Singapore 
Rights: © 2015 American Geophysical Union. This paper was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth and is made available as an electronic reprint (preprint) with permission of American Geophysical Union. The published version is available at: []. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic or multiple reproduction, distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper is prohibited and is subject to penalties under law.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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