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Title: Fake news or weak science? Visibility and characterization of antivaccine webpages returned by Google in different languages and countries
Authors: Bizzi, Isabella Harb
Arif, Nadia
Al-Jefri, Majed
Perano, Gianni Boitano
Goldman, Michel
Haq, Inam
Chua, Kee Leng
Mengozzi, Manuela
Neunez, Marie
Smith, Helen
Ghezzi, Pietro
Keywords: Information Quality
Issue Date: 2018
Source: Arif, N., Al-Jefri, M., Bizzi, I. H., Perano, G. B., Goldman, M., Haq, I., et al. (2018). Fake News or Weak Science? Visibility and Characterization of Antivaccine Webpages Returned by Google in Different Languages and Countries. Frontiers in Immunology, 9.
Series/Report no.: Frontiers in Immunology
Abstract: The 1998 Lancet paper by Wakefield et al., despite subsequent retraction and evidence indicating no causal link between vaccinations and autism, triggered significant parental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze the online information available on this topic. Using localized versions of Google, we searched “autism vaccine” in English, French, Italian, Portuguese, Mandarin, and Arabic and analyzed 200 websites for each search engine result page (SERP). A common feature was the newsworthiness of the topic, with news outlets representing 25–50% of the SERP, followed by unaffiliated websites (blogs, social media) that represented 27–41% and included most of the vaccine-negative websites. Between 12 and 24% of websites had a negative stance on vaccines, while most websites were pro-vaccine (43–70%). However, their ranking by Google varied. While in, the first vaccine-negative website was the 43rd in the SERP, there was one vaccine-negative webpage in the top 10 websites in both the British and Australian localized versions and in French and two in Italian, Portuguese, and Mandarin, suggesting that the information quality algorithm used by Google may work better in English. Many webpages mentioned celebrities in the context of the link between vaccines and autism, with Donald Trump most frequently. Few websites (1–5%) promoted complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) but 50–100% of these were also vaccine-negative suggesting that CAM users are more exposed to vaccine-negative information. This analysis highlights the need for monitoring the web for information impacting on vaccine uptake.
ISSN: 1664-3224
DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01215
Schools: Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine) 
Rights: © 2018 Arif, Al-Jefri, Bizzi, Perano, Goldman, Haq, Chua, Mengozzi, Neunez, Smith and Ghezzi. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:LKCMedicine Journal Articles

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