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Title: Ginsentides : cysteine and glycine-rich peptides from the ginseng family with unusual disulfide connectivity
Authors: Tam, James P.
Loo, Shining
Wang, Shujing
Yang, Daiwen
Kam, Antony
Nguyen, Giang Kien Truc
Keywords: DRNTU::Science::Biological sciences
Disulfide Connectivity
Issue Date: 2018
Source: Tam, J. P., Nguyen, G. K. T., Loo, S., Wang, S., Yang, D., & Kam, A. (2018). Ginsentides : cysteine and glycine-rich peptides from the ginseng family with unusual disulfide connectivity. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 16201-. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-33894-x
Series/Report no.: Scientific Reports
Abstract: Ginseng, a popular and valuable traditional medicine, has been used for centuries to maintain health and treat disease. Here we report the discovery and characterization of ginsentides, a novel family of cysteine and glycine-rich peptides derived from the three most widely-used ginseng species: Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, and Panax notoginseng. Using proteomic and transcriptomic methods, we identified 14 ginsentides, TP1-TP14 which consist of 31–33 amino acids and whose expression profiles are species- and tissues-dependent. Ginsentides have an eight-cysteine motif typical of the eight-cysteine-hevein-like peptides (8C-HLP) commonly found in medicinal herbs, but lack a chitin-binding domain. Transcriptomic analysis showed that the three-domain biosynthetic precursors of ginsentides differ from known 8C-HLP precursors in architecture and the absence of a C-terminal protein-cargo domain. A database search revealed an additional 50 ginsentide-like precursors from both gymnosperms and angiosperms. Disulfide mapping and structure determination of the ginsentide TP1 revealed a novel disulfide connectivity that differs from the 8C-HLPs. The structure of ginsentide TP1 is highly compact, with the N- and C-termini topologically fixed by disulfide bonds to form a pseudocyclic structure that confers resistance to heat, proteolysis, and acid and serum-mediated degradation. Together, our results expand the chemical space of natural products found in ginseng and highlight the occurrence, distribution, disulfide connectivity, and precursor architectures of cysteine- and glycine-rich ginsentides as a class of novel non-chitin-binding, non-cargo-carrying 8C-HLPs.
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-33894-x
Schools: School of Biological Sciences 
Rights: © 2018 The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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