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Title: Impact of a narrow coastal Bay of Bengal sea surface temperature front on an Indian summer monsoon simulation
Authors: Samanta, Dhrubajyoti
Hameed, Saji N.
Jin, Dachao
Thilakan, Vishnu
Ganai, Malay
Rao, Suryachandra A.
Deshpande, Medha
Keywords: Indian Summer Monsoon
DRNTU::Social sciences::Geography::Environmental sciences
Sea Surface Temperature
Issue Date: 2018
Source: Samanta, D., Hameed, S. N., Jin, D., Thilakan, V., Ganai, M., Rao, S. A., & Deshpande, M. (2018). Impact of a narrow coastal Bay of Bengal sea surface temperature front on an Indian summer monsoon simulation. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 17694-. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35735-3
Series/Report no.: Scientific Reports
Abstract: A dry bias in climatological Central Indian rainfall plagues Indian summer monsoon (ISM) simulations in multiple generations of climate models. Here, using observations and regional climate modeling, we focus on a warm coastal Bay of Bengal sea surface temperature (SST) front and its impact on Central Indian rainfall. The SST front, featuring sharp gradients as large as 0.5 °C/100 km, is colocated with a mixed layer depth (MLD) front, in a region where salinity variations are known to control MLD. Regional climate simulations coupling a regional atmospheric model with an ocean mixed layer model are performed. A simulation with observed MLD climatology reproduces SST, rainfall, and atmospheric circulation associated with ISM reasonably well; it also eliminates the dry bias over Central India significantly. Perturbing MLD structure in the simulations, we isolate the SST front’s impact on the simulated ISM climate state. This experiment offers insights into ISM climatological biases in the coupled NCEP Climate Forecast System version-2. We suggest that the warm SST front is essential to Central Indian rainfall as it helps to sustain deep and intense convection in its vicinity, which may be a source for the vortex cores seeding the monsoon low-pressure systems.
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-35735-3
Schools: Asian School of the Environment 
Rights: © 2018 The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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