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Title: The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndrome
Authors: Karmiloff-Smith, Annette
Al-Janabi, Tamara
D'Souza, Hana
Groet, Jurgen
Massand, Esha
Mok, Kin
Startin, Carla
Fisher, Elizabeth
Hardy, John
Nizetic, Dean
Tybulewicz, Victor
Strydom, Andre
Keywords: Medicine
Issue Date: 2016
Source: Karmiloff-Smith, A., Al-Janabi, T., D'Souza, H., Groet, J., Massand, E., Mok, K., et al. (2016). The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndrome. F1000Research, 5, 389-.
Series/Report no.: F1000Research
Abstract: In this article, we first present a summary of the general assumptions about Down syndrome (DS) still to be found in the literature. We go on to show how new research has modified these assumptions, pointing to a wide range of individual differences at every level of description. We argue that, in the context of significant increases in DS life expectancy, a focus on individual differences in trisomy 21 at all levels—genetic, cellular, neural, cognitive, behavioral, and environmental—constitutes one of the best approaches for understanding genotype/phenotype relations in DS and for exploring risk and protective factors for Alzheimer’s disease in this high-risk population.
ISSN: 2046-1402
DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.7506.1
Schools: Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine) 
Rights: © 2016 Karmiloff-Smith A et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The author(s) is/are employees of the US Government and therefore domestic copyright protection in USA does not apply to this work. The work may be protected under the copyright laws of other jurisdictions when used in those jurisdictions.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:LKCMedicine Journal Articles

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