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Title: Nanoparticle-assay marker interaction: effects on nanotoxicity assessment
Authors: Zhao, Xinxin
Xiong, Sijing
Huang, Liwen Charlotte
Ng, Kee Woei
Loo, Say Chye Joachim
Keywords: Nanomaterial
LDH assay
Issue Date: 2015
Source: Zhao, X., Xiong, S., Huang, L. C., Ng, K. W., & Loo, S. C. J. (2015). Nanoparticle-assay marker interaction: effects on nanotoxicity assessment. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 17(13).
Series/Report no.: Journal of Nanoparticle Research
Abstract: Protein-based cytotoxicity assays such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are commonly used in cytotoxic evaluation of nanoparticles (NPs) despite numerous reports on possible interactions with protein markers in these assays that can confound the results obtained. In this study, conventional cytotoxicity assays where assay markers may (LDH and TNF- α) or may not (PicoGreen and WST-8) come into contact with NPs were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of NPs. The findings revealed selective interactions between negatively charged protein assay markers (LDH and TNF- α) and positively charged ZnO NPs under abiotic conditions. The adsorption and interaction with these protein assay markers were strongly influenced by surface charge, concentration, and specific surface area of the NPs, thereby resulting in less than accurate cytotoxic measurements, as observed from actual cell viability measurements. An improved protocol for LDH assay was, therefore, proposed and validated by eliminating any effects associated with protein–particle interactions. In view of this, additional measures and precautions should be taken when evaluating cytotoxicity of NPs with standard protein-based assays, particularly when they are of opposite charges.
ISSN: 1388-0764
DOI: 10.1007/s11051-014-2841-0
Schools: School of Materials Science & Engineering 
Research Centres: Singapore Centre for Environmental Life Sciences Engineering 
Rights: © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Fulltext Permission: none
Fulltext Availability: No Fulltext
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