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Title: Simultaneous polymerization and adhesion under hypoxia in sickle cell disease
Authors: Papageorgiou, Dimitrios P.
Abidi, Sabia Z.
Chang, Hung-Yu
Li, Xuejin
Kato, Gregory J.
Karniadakis, George E.
Suresh, Subra
Dao, Ming
Keywords: Dissipative Particle Dynamics
Sickle Cell Adhesion Dynamics
Issue Date: 2018
Source: Papageorgiou, D. P., Abidi, S. Z., Chang, H.-Y., Li, X., Kato, G. J., Karniadakis, G. E., . . . Dao, M. (2018). Simultaneous polymerization and adhesion under hypoxia in sickle cell disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(38), 9473-9478. doi:10.1073/pnas.1807405115
Series/Report no.: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Abstract: Polymerization and adhesion, dynamic processes that are hallmarks of sickle cell disease (SCD), have thus far been studied in vitro only separately. Here, we present quantitative results of the simultaneous and synergistic effects of adhesion and polymerization of deoxygenated sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in the human red blood cell (RBC) on the mechanisms underlying vasoocclusive pain crisis. For this purpose, we employ a specially developed hypoxic microfluidic platform, which is capable of inducing sickling and unsickling of RBCs in vitro, to test blood samples from eight patients with SCD. We supplemented these experimental results with detailed molecular-level computational simulations of cytoadherence and biorheology using dissipative particle dynamics. By recourse to image analysis techniques, we characterize sickle RBC maturation stages in the following order of the degree of adhesion susceptibility under hypoxia: sickle reticulocytes in circulation (SRs) → sickle mature erythrocytes (SMEs) → irreversibly sickled cells (ISCs). We show that (i) hypoxia significantly enhances sickle RBC adherence; (ii) HbS polymerization enhances sickle cell adherence in SRs and SMEs, but not in ISCs; (iii) SRs exhibit unique adhesion dynamics where HbS fiber projections growing outward from the cell surface create multiple sites of adhesion; and (iv) polymerization stimulates adhesion and vice versa, thereby establishing the bidirectional coupling between the two processes. These findings offer insights into possible mechanistic pathways leading to vasoocclusion crisis. They also elucidate the processes underlying the onset of occlusion that may involve circulating reticulocytes, which are more abundant in hemolytic anemias due to robust compensatory erythropoiesis.
ISSN: 0027-8424
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807405115
Schools: School of Materials Science & Engineering 
Rights: © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS. This open access article is distributed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND).
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:MSE Journal Articles

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