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Title: Piscidin-1-analogs with double L- and D-lysine residues exhibited different conformations in lipopolysaccharide but comparable anti-endotoxin activities
Authors: Kumar, Amit
Mahajan, Mukesh
Awasthi, Bhanupriya
Tandon, Anshika
Harioudh, Munesh Kumar
Shree, Sonal
Singh, Pratiksha
Shukla, Praveen Kumar
Ramachandran, Ravishankar
Mitra, Kalyan
Bhattacharjya, Surajit
Ghosh, Jimut Kanti
Keywords: Inflammation
Issue Date: 2017
Source: Kumar, A., Mahajan, M., Awasthi, B., Tandon, A., Harioudh, M. K., Shree, S., et al. (2017). Piscidin-1-analogs with double L- and D-lysine residues exhibited different conformations in lipopolysaccharide but comparable anti-endotoxin activities. Scientific Reports, 7, 39925-.
Series/Report no.: Scientific Reports
Abstract: To become clinically effective, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) should be non-cytotoxic to host cells. Piscidins are a group of fish-derived AMPs with potent antimicrobial and antiendotoxin activities but limited by extreme cytotoxicity. We conjectured that introduction of cationic residue(s) at the interface of polar and non-polar faces of piscidins may control their insertion into hydrophobic mammalian cell membrane and thereby reducing cytotoxicity. We have designed several novel analogs of piscidin-1 by substituting threonine residue(s) with L and D-lysine residue(s). L/D-lysine-substituted analogs showed significantly reduced cytotoxicity but exhibited either higher or comparable antibacterial activity akin to piscidin-1. Piscidin-1-analogs demonstrated higher efficacy than piscidin-1 in inhibiting lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory responses in THP-1 cells. T15,21K-piscidin-1 (0.5 mg/Kg) and T15,21dK-piscidin-1 (1.0 mg/Kg) demonstrated 100% survival of LPS (12.0 mg/Kg)-administered mice. High resolution NMR studies revealed that both piscidin-1 and T15,21K-piscidin-1 adopted helical structures, with latter showing a shorter helix, higher amphipathicity and cationic residues placed at optimal distances to form ionic/hydrogen bond with lipid A of LPS. Remarkably, T15,21dK-piscidin-1 showed a helix-loop-helix structure in LPS and its interactions with LPS could be sustained by the distance of separation of side chains of R7 and D-Lys-15 which is close to the inter-phosphate distance of lipid A.
ISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/srep39925
Schools: School of Biological Sciences 
Rights: © 2017 The Author(s) (Nature Publishing Group). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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