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Title: Impact of molybdenum out diffusion and interface quality on the performance of sputter grown CZTS based solar cells
Authors: Dalapati, Goutam Kumar
Zhuk, Siarhei
Masudy-Panah, Saeid
Kushwaha, Ajay
Seng, Hwee Leng
Chellappan, Vijila
Suresh, Vignesh
Su, Zhenghua
Batabyal, Sudip Kumar
Tan, Cheng Cheh
Guchhait, Asim
Wong, Lydia Helena
Wong, Terence Kin Shun
Tripathy, Sudhiranjan
Keywords: Solar cells
Issue Date: 2017
Source: Dalapati, G. K., Zhuk, S., Masudy-Panah, S., Kushwaha, A., Seng, H. L., Chellappan, V., et al. (2017). Impact of molybdenum out diffusion and interface quality on the performance of sputter grown CZTS based solar cells. Scientific Reports, 7, 1350-.
Series/Report no.: Scientific Reports
Abstract: We have investigated the impact of Cu2ZnSnS4-Molybdenum (Mo) interface quality on the performance of sputter-grown Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cell. Thin film CZTS was deposited by sputter deposition technique using stoichiometry quaternary CZTS target. Formation of molybdenum sulphide (MoSx) interfacial layer is observed in sputter grown CZTS films after sulphurization. Thickness of MoSx layer is found ~142 nm when CZTS layer (550 nm thick) is sulphurized at 600 °C. Thickness of MoSx layer significantly increased to ~240 nm in case of thicker CZTS layer (650 nm) under similar sulphurization condition. We also observe that high temperature (600 °C) annealing suppress the elemental impurities (Cu, Zn, Sn) at interfacial layer. The amount of out-diffused Mo significantly varies with the change in sulphurization temperature. The out-diffused Mo into CZTS layer and reconstructed interfacial layer remarkably decreases series resistance and increases shunt resistance of the solar cell. The overall efficiency of the solar cell is improved by nearly five times when 600 °C sulphurized CZTS layer is applied in place of 500 °C sulphurized layer. Molybdenum and sulphur diffusion reconstruct the interface layer during heat treatment and play the major role in charge carrier dynamics of a photovoltaic device.
ISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-01605-7
Schools: School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering 
School of Materials Science & Engineering 
Research Centres: Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N) 
Rights: © 2017 The Author(s) (Nature Publishing Group). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:EEE Journal Articles
ERI@N Journal Articles
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