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Title: Multi-material three dimensional printed models for simulation of bronchoscopy
Authors: Tan, Joel Heang Kuan
Lim, Albert Yick Hou
Ferenczi, Michael Alan
Mogali, Sreenivasulu Reddy
Ho, Brian Han Khai
Chen, Cecilia Jiayu
Tan, Gerald Jit Shen
Yeong, Wai Yee
Keywords: Simulation
3D Printing
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Ho, B. H. K., Chen, C. J., Tan, G. J. S., Yeong, W. Y., Tan, J. H. K., Lim, A. Y. H., . . . Mogali, S. R. (2019). Multi-material three dimensional printed models for simulation of bronchoscopy. BMC Medical Education, 19(1), 236-. doi:10.1186/s12909-019-1677-9
Series/Report no.: BMC Medical Education
Abstract: Background: Bronchoscopy involves exploration of a three-dimensional (3D) bronchial tree environment using just two-dimensional (2D) images, visual cues and haptic feedback. Sound knowledge and understanding of tracheobronchial anatomy as well as ample training experience is mandatory for technical mastery. Although simulated modalities facilitate safe training for inexperienced operators, current commercial training models are expensive or deficient in anatomical accuracy, clinical fidelity and patient representation. The advent of Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology may resolve the current limitations with commercial simulators. The purpose of this report is to develop and test the novel multi-material three-dimensional (3D) printed airway models for bronchoscopy simulation. Methods: Using material jetting 3D printing and polymer amalgamation, human airway models were created from anonymized human thoracic computed tomography images from three patients: one normal, a second with a tumour obstructing the right main bronchus and third with a goitre causing external tracheal compression. We validated their efficacy as airway trainers by expert bronchoscopists. Recruited study participants performed bronchoscopy on the 3D printed airway models and then completed a standardized evaluation questionnaire. Results: The models are flexible, life size, anatomically accurate and patient specific. Five expert respiratory physicians participated in validation of the airway models. All the participants agreed that the models were suitable for training bronchoscopic anatomy and access. Participants suggested further refinement of colour and texture of the internal surface of the airways. Most respondents felt that the models are suitable simulators for tracheal pathology, have a learning value and recommend it to others for use in training. Conclusion: Using material jetting 3D printing to create patient-specific anatomical models is a promising modality of simulation training. Our results support further evaluation of the printed airway model as a bronchoscopic trainer, and suggest that pathological airways may be simulated using this technique.
DOI: 10.1186/s12909-019-1677-9
Rights: © 2019 The Author(s). This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:LKCMedicine Journal Articles

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