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Title: Noninvasive electromagnetic wave sensing of glucose
Authors: Zhang, Ruochong
Liu, Siyu
Jin, Haoran
Luo, Yunqi
Zheng, Zesheng
Gao, Fei
Zheng, Yuanjin
Keywords: IR Spectroscopy
Engineering::Electrical and electronic engineering
Noninvasive Glucose Measurement
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Zhang, R., Liu, S., Jin, H., Luo, Y., Zheng, Z., Gao, F., & Zheng, Y. (2019). Noninvasive Electromagnetic Wave Sensing of Glucose. Sensors, 19(5), 1151-. doi:10.3390/s19051151
Series/Report no.: Sensors
Abstract: Diabetic patients need long-term and frequent glucose monitoring to assist in insulin intake. The current finger-prick devices are painful and costly, which places noninvasive glucose sensors in high demand. In this review paper, we list several advanced electromagnetic (EM)-wave-based technologies for noninvasive glucose measurement, including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence, optical coherence tomography (OCT), Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy, and microwave sensing. The development of each method is discussed regarding the fundamental principle, system setup, and experimental results. Despite the promising achievements that have been previously reported, no established product has obtained FDA approval or survived a marketing test. The limitations of, and prospects for, these techniques are presented at the end of this review.
ISSN: 1424-8220
DOI: 10.3390/s19051151
Rights: © 2019 by the Authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:EEE Journal Articles

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