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dc.contributor.authorPlewes, Katherineen
dc.contributor.authorKingston, Hugh W.F.en
dc.contributor.authorGhose, Aniruddhaen
dc.contributor.authorMaude, Richard J.en
dc.contributor.authorHerdman, M. Trenten
dc.contributor.authorLeopold, Stije J.en
dc.contributor.authorIshioka, Haruhikoen
dc.contributor.authorHasan, Md. Mahtab Uddinen
dc.contributor.authorHaider, Md. Shafiulen
dc.contributor.authorAlam, Shamsulen
dc.contributor.authorPiera, Kim A.en
dc.contributor.authorCharunwatthana, Prakaykaewen
dc.contributor.authorSilamut, Kamolraten
dc.contributor.authorYeo, Tsin Wenen
dc.contributor.authorFaiz, Md. Abulen
dc.contributor.authorLee, Sue J.en
dc.contributor.authorMukaka, Mavutoen
dc.contributor.authorTurner, Gareth D. H.en
dc.contributor.authorAnstey, Nicholas M.en
dc.contributor.authorJackson Roberts II, L.en
dc.contributor.authorWhite, Nicholas J.en
dc.contributor.authorDay, Nicholas P. J.en
dc.contributor.authorHossain, Md. Amiren
dc.contributor.authorDondorp, Arjen M.en
dc.identifier.citationPlewes, K., Kingston, H. W. F., Ghose, A., Maude, R. J., Herdman, M. T., Leopold, S. J., et al. (2017). Cell-free hemoglobin mediated oxidative stress is associated with acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy in severe falciparum malaria: an observational study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 17, 313-.en
dc.description.abstractBackground: Intravascular hemolysis is an intrinsic feature of severe malaria pathophysiology but the pathogenic role of cell-free hemoglobin-mediated oxidative stress in severe malaria associated acute kidney injury (AKI) is unknown. Methods: As part of a prospective observational study, enrolment plasma cell-free hemoglobin (CFH), lipid peroxidation markers (F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) and isofurans (IsoFs)), red cell deformability, and serum creatinine were quantified in Bangladeshi patients with severe falciparum malaria (n = 107), uncomplicated malaria (n = 80) and sepsis (n = 28). The relationships between these indices and kidney function and clinical outcomes were examined. Results: AKI was diagnosed at enrolment in 58% (62/107) of consecutive patients with severe malaria, defined by an increase in creatinine ≥1.5 times expected baseline. Severe malaria patients with AKI had significantly higher plasma cell-free hemoglobin (geometric mean CFH: 8.8 μM; 95% CI, 6.2–12.3 μM), F2-isoprostane (56.7 pg/ml; 95% CI, 45.3–71.0 pg/ml) and isofuran (109.2 pg/ml; 95% CI, 85.1–140.1 pg/ml) concentrations on enrolment compared to those without AKI (CFH: 5.1 μM; 95% CI, 4.0–6.6 μM; P = 0.018; F2-IsoPs: 27.8 pg/ml; 95% CI, 23.7–32.7 pg/ml; P < 0.001; IsoFs: 41.7 pg/ml; 95% CI, 30.2–57.6 pg/ml; P < 0.001). Cell-free hemoglobin correlated with markers of hemolysis, parasite burden (P. falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP2)), and F2-IsoPs. Plasma F2-IsoPs and IsoFs inversely correlated with pH, positively correlated with creatinine, PfHRP2 and fractional excretion of sodium, and were higher in patients later requiring hemodialysis. Plasma F2-IsoP concentrations also inversely correlated with red cell deformability and were higher in fatal cases. Mixed effects modeling including an interaction term for CFH and time showed that F2-IsoPs, IsoFs, PfHRP2, CFH, and red cell rigidity were independently associated with increasing creatinine over 72 h. Multivariable logistic regression showed that admission F2-IsoPs, IsoFs and red cell deformability were associated with the need for subsequent hemodialysis. Conclusions: Cell-free hemoglobin and lipid peroxidation are associated with acute kidney injury and disease severity in falciparum malaria, suggesting a pathophysiological role in renal tubular injury. Evaluation of adjunctive therapies targeting cell-free hemoglobin-mediated oxidative stress is warranted.en
dc.format.extent12 p.en
dc.relation.ispartofseriesBMC Infectious Diseasesen
dc.rights© 2017 The Author(s). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.en
dc.subjectAcute kidney injuryen
dc.titleCell-free hemoglobin mediated oxidative stress is associated with acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy in severe falciparum malaria: an observational studyen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolLee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine)en
dc.description.versionPublished versionen
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