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Title: Alcohol and tobacco use among methadone maintenance patients in Vietnamese rural mountainside areas
Authors: Nguyen, Hung Van
Ho, Roger C. M.
Zhang, Melvyn W. B.
Tran, Bach Xuan
Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi
Le, Quynh Ngoc Hoang
Mai, Hue Thi
Ngo, Chau
Hoang, Canh Dinh
Nguyen, Hai Hong
Le, Hai Quan
Le, Huong Thi
Tran, Tho Dinh
Zary, Nabil
Latkin, Carl A.
Vu, Thuc Minh Thi
Keywords: Tobacco
Issue Date: 2017
Source: Tran, B. X., Nguyen, H. L. T., Le, Q. N. H., Mai, H. T., Ngo, C., Hoang, C. D., et al. (2018). Alcohol and tobacco use among methadone maintenance patients in Vietnamese rural mountainside areas. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 7, 19-25.
Series/Report no.: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Abstract: Introduction: The expansion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program requires more data about the factors affecting the effectiveness of treatment, especially behavioral data such as smoking and alcohol use among patients. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol consumption and identify related factors among MMT patients in the Vietnamese rural mountainside. Methods: We interviewed 241 MMT patients in two clinics in Tuyen Quang, a mountainous province in Vietnam. Patients were asked to report the smoking status (current smoker or not), nicotine dependence (by Fagerström test for nicotine dependence - FTND) and alcohol use (by using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – AUDIT-C). EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) and EQ-Visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) were employed to measure health-related quality of life. Multivariate logistic and Tobit regressions were used to identify the associated factors. Results: The majority of respondents were current smokers (75.7%) and a low proportion were hazardous drinkers (18.3%). People receiving treatment in a rural clinic (OR = 0.45; 95%CI = 0.22–0.92) and had problems in usual activities (OR = 0.20; 95%CI = 0.06–0.70) were less likely to be smokers. Q-VAS score (Coef. = 0.03; 95%CI = 0.02–0.05) and having problems in mobility (Coef. = 0.72; 95%CI = 0.03–1.42) was found to be associated with the increase of nicotine dependence. In terms of alcohol drinking, people with other jobs were more likely to drink hazardously compared to unemployed patients (OR = 2.86; 95%CI = 1.20–6.82). Similarly, patients having higher duration of MMT had higher likelihood of being hazardous drinkers (OR = 1.07; 95%CI = 1.01–1.13). Conclusions: This study highlights the low rate of alcohol abusers but a considerably high proportion of current smokers among MMT patients in the rural mountainside area. Alcohol and tobacco counseling programs combined with social and family support also play an essential role in alcohol and tobacco control. In addition, implementing mass community-based behavioral change campaigns to reduce drug addiction-related stigmatization should also be prioritized.
DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.11.005
Rights: © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:LKCMedicine Journal Articles

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