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dc.contributor.authorAkhondi, Ebrahimen_US
dc.contributor.authorZamani, Farhaden_US
dc.contributor.authorLaw, Adrian Wing-Keungen_US
dc.contributor.authorKrantz, William Bernarden_US
dc.contributor.authorFane, Anthony Gordonen_US
dc.contributor.authorChew, Jia Weien_US
dc.identifier.citationAkhondi, E., Zamani, F., Law, A. W.-K., Krantz, W. B., Fane, A. G., & Chew, J. W. (2017). Influence of backwashing on the pore size of hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes. Journal of Membrane Science, 521, 33-42.en_US
dc.description.abstractBackwashing is a common method for fouling mitigation. However, its impact on the pore-size distribution (PSD) of hollow fiber (HF) membranes has not been studied to date. This study quantitatively assessed the effects of filtration and backwashing cycles on the PSDs of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) HF membranes by evapoporometry (EP) characterization. The membranes were characterized before and after repeated cycles of filtration and backwashing in the absence of any foulants, and for a feed solution of bentonite and humic acid that caused fouling both on and within the membrane pores. Firstly, in the absence of any foulants, backwashing caused the appearance of larger pores, the effect of which was greater for the rubbery PVDF membrane than for the glassy PAN membrane. Secondly, backwashing was more effective in removing the fouling within the larger pores, but could not remove all the deposits within the smaller pores, which provides a mechanistic explanation for the progressive increase in the transmembrane pressure (TMP) with each backwashing cycle. Thirdly, the membranes that did not undergo the 10th backwashing at the end of 10 cycles of filtration and backwashing displayed a marked shift of the PSD towards smaller pores due to the deposition of foulants on and within the largest pores, whereas those that underwent the 10 complete backwashing cycles achieved nearly complete recovery of the larger pores accompanied by an irreversible increase in the diameter of the largest pores. Fourthly, a higher backwashing flux led to similar average pore diameters of the fouled and virgin membranes due to the increased effectiveness in restoring the smallest pores, but the corresponding higher filtration flux negated the benefits due to a greater fouling extent particularly for the larger pores. Finally, in order to achieve the desired permeation and rejection properties, possible enlargement of the pores needs to be taken into consideration when choosing a ultrafiltration (UF) membrane and when specifying the backwashing intensity and protocol.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Membrane Scienceen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesJournal of Membrane Scienceen
dc.rights© 2016 Elsevieren_US
dc.subjectMembrane foulingen_US
dc.titleInfluence of backwashing on the pore size of hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranesen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Chemical and Biomedical Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.researchNanyang Environment and Water Research Instituteen_US
dc.contributor.researchSingapore Membrane Technology Centreen_US
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