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Title: White light emission from thin-film samples of ZnO nanocrystals, Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions embedded in an SiO2 matrix
Authors: Mangalam, Vivek
Pita, Kantisara
Keywords: Zinc Oxide Nanocrystals
Engineering::Electrical and electronic engineering
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Mangalam, V., & Pita, K. (2019). White Light Emission from Thin-Film Samples of ZnO Nanocrystals, Eu3+ and Tb3+ Ions Embedded in an SiO2 Matrix. Materials, 12(12), 1997-. doi:10.3390/ma12121997
Series/Report no.: Materials
Abstract: In this work, a method was developed to determine the concentration of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions in a thin-film sample of SiO2, co-doped with ZnO-nanocrystals (ZnO-nc), to produce a sample of any desired colour in the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) colour space. Using this method, a white light emitting sample was fabricated. The thin-film sample combines red, green and blue emissions from the Eu3+ ions, Tb3+ ions and ZnO-nc, respectively, to create white light or light of any desired colour. The emissions at 614 nm and 545 nm from Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions, respectively, is due to the energy transfer from the excited ZnO-nc to the rare-earth (RE) ions. In this way, only a single excitation wavelength is needed to excite the ZnO-nc, Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions in the sample to produce emission of a desired colour from the sample. We developed an empirical 4th-degree polynomial equation to determine the concentrations of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions to produce light of any desired colour in the CIE colour space. Based on the above empirical equation, the concentration of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions for a white light emitting sample was found to be 0.012 and 0.024 molar fractions, respectively. The white light emission from the sample was confirmed by fabricating the sample using the low-cost sol–gel process. The stimulated emission spectra and the experimental emission spectra of the white light sample fit very well. The results presented in this work are important to develop energy efficient solid state lighting devices.
ISSN: 1996-1944
DOI: 10.3390/ma12121997
Rights: © 2019 by the Authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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