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dc.contributor.authorCar, Josipen
dc.contributor.authorCarlstedt-Duke, Janen
dc.contributor.authorTudor Car, Lorainneen
dc.contributor.authorPosadzki, Pawelen
dc.contributor.authorWhiting, Pennyen
dc.contributor.authorZary, Nabilen
dc.contributor.authorAtun, Rifaten
dc.contributor.authorMajeed, Azeemen
dc.contributor.authorCampbell, Jamesen
dc.identifier.citationCar, J., Carlstedt-Duke, J., Tudor Car, L., Posadzki, P., Whiting, P., Zary, N., . . . Campbell, J. (2019). Digital education in health professions : the need for overarching evidence synthesis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 21(2), e12913-. doi:10.2196/12913en
dc.description.abstractSynthesizing evidence from randomized controlled trials of digital health education poses some challenges. These include a lack of clear categorization of digital health education in the literature; constantly evolving concepts, pedagogies, or theories; and a multitude of methods, features, technologies, or delivery settings. The Digital Health Education Collaboration was established to evaluate the evidence on digital education in health professions; inform policymakers, educators, and students; and ultimately, change the way in which these professionals learn and are taught. The aim of this paper is to present the overarching methodology that we use to synthesize evidence across our digital health education reviews and to discuss challenges related to the process. For our research, we followed Cochrane recommendations for the conduct of systematic reviews; all reviews are reported according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidance. This included assembling experts in various digital health education fields; identifying gaps in the evidence base; formulating focused research questions, aims, and outcome measures; choosing appropriate search terms and databases; defining inclusion and exclusion criteria; running the searches jointly with librarians and information specialists; managing abstracts; retrieving full-text versions of papers; extracting and storing large datasets, critically appraising the quality of studies; analyzing data; discussing findings; drawing meaningful conclusions; and drafting research papers. The approach used for synthesizing evidence from digital health education trials is commonly regarded as the most rigorous benchmark for conducting systematic reviews. Although we acknowledge the presence of certain biases ingrained in the process, we have clearly highlighted and minimized those biases by strictly adhering to scientific rigor, methodological integrity, and standard operating procedures. This paper will be a valuable asset for researchers and methodologists undertaking systematic reviews in digital health education.en
dc.format.extent11 p.en
dc.relation.ispartofseriesJournal of Medical Internet Researchen
dc.rights© 2019 Josip Car, Jan Carlstedt-Duke, Lorainne Tudor Car, Pawel Posadzki, Penny Whiting, Nabil Zary, Rifat Atun, Azeem Majeed, James Campbell, Digital Health Education Collaboration. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (, 14.02.2019. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.en
dc.titleDigital education in health professions : the need for overarching evidence synthesisen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolLee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine)en
dc.contributor.organizationMedical Education Research and Scholarship Uniten
dc.contributor.organizationCentre for Population Health Sciencesen
dc.contributor.organizationNanyang Institute of Technology in Health and Medicineen
dc.contributor.organizationFamily Medicine and Primary Careen
dc.description.versionPublished versionen
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