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dc.contributor.authorHuang, Zhilianen
dc.contributor.authorSemwal, Monikaen
dc.contributor.authorLee, Shuen Yeeen
dc.contributor.authorTee, Mervinen
dc.contributor.authorOng, Williamen
dc.contributor.authorTan, Woan Shinen
dc.contributor.authorBajpai, Ramen
dc.contributor.authorTudor Car, Lorainneen
dc.identifier.citationHuang, Z., Semwal, M., Lee, S. Y., Tee, M., Ong, W., Tan, W. S., . . . Tudor Car, L. (2019). Digital health professions education on diabetes management : systematic review by the digital health education collaboration. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 21(2), e12997-. doi:10.2196/12997en
dc.description.abstractBackground: There is a shortage of health care professionals competent in diabetes management worldwide. Digital education is increasingly used in educating health professionals on diabetes. Digital diabetes self-management education for patients has been shown to improve patients’ knowledge and outcomes. However, the effectiveness of digital education on diabetes management for health care professionals is still unknown. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and economic impact of digital education in improving health care professionals’ knowledge, skills, attitudes, satisfaction, and competencies. We also assessed its impact on patient outcomes and health care professionals’ behavior. Methods: We included randomized controlled trials evaluating the impact of digitalized diabetes management education for health care professionals pre- and postregistration. Publications from 1990 to 2017 were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, and Web of Science. Screening, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were conducted independently by 2 authors. Results: A total of 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were heterogeneous in terms of digital education modality, comparators, outcome measures, and intervention duration. Most studies comparing digital or blended education to traditional education reported significantly higher knowledge and skills scores in the intervention group. There was little or no between-group difference in patient outcomes or economic impact. Most studies were judged at a high or unclear risk of bias. Conclusions: Digital education seems to be more effective than traditional education in improving diabetes management–related knowledge and skills. The paucity and low quality of the available evidence call for urgent and well-designed studies focusing on important outcomes such as health care professionals’ behavior, patient outcomes, and cost-effectiveness as well as its impact in diverse settings, including developing countries.en
dc.format.extent12 p.en
dc.relation.ispartofseriesJournal of Medical Internet Researchen
dc.rights© 2019 Zhilian Huang, Monika Semwal, Shuen Yee Lee, Mervin Tee, William Ong, Woan Shin Tan, Ram Bajpai, Lorainne Tudor Car. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (, 21.02.2019. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.en
dc.subjectEvidence-based Practiceen
dc.subjectHealth Personnelen
dc.titleDigital health professions education on diabetes management : systematic review by the digital health education collaborationen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolInterdisciplinary Graduate School (IGS)en
dc.contributor.schoolLee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine)en
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineeringen
dc.contributor.organizationCentre for Population Health Sciencesen
dc.contributor.organizationInstitute for Health Technologiesen
dc.contributor.organizationFamily Medicine and Primary Careen
dc.description.versionPublished versionen
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