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Title: Imaging modalities to diagnose carotid artery stenosis : progress and prospect
Authors: Saxena, Ashish
Ng, Eddie Yin Kwee
Lim, Soo Teik
Keywords: Carotid Artery Stenosis
Engineering::Mechanical engineering
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Saxena, A., Ng, E. Y. K., & Lim, S. T. (2019). Imaging modalities to diagnose carotid artery stenosis : progress and prospect. BioMedical Engineering OnLine, 18(1), 66-. doi:10.1186/s12938-019-0685-7
Series/Report no.: BioMedical Engineering OnLine
Abstract: In the past few decades, imaging has been developed to a high level of sophistication. Improvements from one-dimension (1D) to 2D images, and from 2D images to 3D models, have revolutionized the field of imaging. This not only helps in diagnosing various critical and fatal diseases in the early stages but also contributes to making informed clinical decisions on the follow-up treatment profile. Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) may potentially cause debilitating stroke, and its accurate early detection is therefore important. In this paper, the technical development of various CAS diagnosis imaging modalities and its impact on the clinical efficacy is thoroughly reviewed. These imaging modalities include duplex ultrasound (DUS), computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). For each of the imaging modalities considered, imaging methodology (principle), critical imaging parameters, and the extent of imaging the vulnerable plaque are discussed. DUS is usually the initial recommended CAS diagnostic examination. However, for the therapeutic intervention, either MRA or CTA is recommended for confirmation, and for added information on intracranial cerebral circulation and aortic arch condition for procedural planning. Over the past few decades, the focus of CAS diagnosis has also shifted from pure stenosis quantification to plaque characterization. This has led to further advancement in the existing imaging tools and development of other potential imaging tools like Optical coherence tomography (OCT), photoacoustic tomography (PAT), and infrared (IR) thermography.
DOI: 10.1186/s12938-019-0685-7
Rights: © 2019 The Author(s). This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:MAE Journal Articles

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