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Title: Cadmium nanoparticles citrullinate cytokeratins within lung epithelial cells: cadmium as a potential cause of citrullination in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Authors: Hutchinson, David
Müller, Judith
McCarthy, Joseph E
Gun'ko, Yurii
Verma, Navin Kumar
Bi, Xuezhi
Di Cristo, Luisana
Kickham, Laura
Movia, Dania
Prina-Mello, Adriele
Volkov, Yuri
Keywords: Cadmium
Issue Date: 2018
Source: Hutchinson, D., Müller, J., McCarthy, J. E., Gun'ko, Y., Verma, N. K., Bi, X., et al. (2018). Cadmium nanoparticles citrullinate cytokeratins within lung epithelial cells: cadmium as a potential cause of citrullination in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 13, 441-449.
Series/Report no.: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Abstract: Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether the cadmium-derived materials induce intracellular protein citrullination. Methods: Human A549 lung epithelial cells were exposed to cadmium in soluble and nanoparticulate forms represented by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and cadmium oxide (CdO), respectively, and their combinations with ultrafine carbon black (ufCB) produced by high temperature combustion, imitating cigarette burning. Protein citrullination in cell lysates was analyzed by Western immunoblotting and verified by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Target citrullinated proteins were identified by proteomic analysis. Results: CdO, ufCB and its combination with CdCl2 and CdO after high temperature combustion induced protein citrullination in cultured human lung epithelial cells, as detected by immunoblotting with anti-citrullinated protein antibody. Cytokeratins of type II (1, 2, 5, 6A, 6B and 77) and type I (9, 10) were identified as major intracellular citrullination targets. Immunofluorescent staining confirmed the localization of citrullinated proteins both in the cytoplasm and cell nuclei. Conclusion: Cadmium oxide nanoparticle exposure facilitated post-translational citrullination of proteins.
ISSN: 1176-9106
DOI: 10.2147/COPD.S152028
Rights: © 2018 Hutchinson et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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