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Title: Removal of haloacetic acids from swimming pool water by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration
Authors: Yang, Linyan
She, Qianhong
Wan, Man Pun
Wang, Rong
Chang, Victor Wei-Chung
Tang, Chuyang Y.
Keywords: Reverse Osmosis
Issue Date: 2017
Source: Yang, L., She, Q., Wan, M. P., Wang, R., Chang, V. W.-C., & Tang, C. Y. (2017). Removal of haloacetic acids from swimming pool water by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration. Water Research, 116, 116-125.
Series/Report no.: Water Research
Abstract: Recent studies report high concentrations of haloacetic acids (HAAs), a prevalent class of toxic disinfection by-products, in swimming pool water (SPW). We investigated the removal of 9 HAAs by four commercial reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes. Under typical SPW conditions (pH 7.5 and 50 mM ionic strength), HAA rejections were >60% for NF270 with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) equal to 266 Da and equal or higher than 90% for XLE, NF90 and SB50 with MWCOs of 96, 118 and 152 Da, respectively, as a result of the combined effects of size exclusion and charge repulsion. We further included 7 neutral hydrophilic surrogates as molecular probes to resolve the rejection mechanisms. In the absence of strong electrostatic interaction (e.g., pH 3.5), the rejection data of HAAs and surrogates by various membranes fall onto an identical size-exclusion (SE) curve when plotted against the relative-size parameter, i.e., the ratio of molecular radius over membrane pore radius. The independence of this SE curve on molecular structures and membrane properties reveals that the relative-size parameter is a more fundamental SE descriptor compared to molecular weight. An effective molecular size with the Stokes radius accounting for size exclusion and the Debye length accounting for electrostatic interaction was further used to evaluate the rejection. The current study provides valuable insights on the rejection of trace contaminants by RO/NF membranes.
ISSN: 0043-1354
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.03.025
Rights: © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. This is the author created version of a work that has been peer reviewed and accepted for publication by Water Research, Elsevier Ltd. It incorporates referee’s comments but changes resulting from the publishing process, such as copyediting, structural formatting, may not be reflected in this document. The published version is available at: [].
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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