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dc.contributor.authorChau, Man Lingen
dc.contributor.authorAung, Kyaw Thuen
dc.contributor.authorHapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige Chandithaen
dc.contributor.authorLee, Pei Sze Valarieen
dc.contributor.authorLim, Pei Yingen
dc.contributor.authorKang, Joanne Su Linen
dc.contributor.authorNg, Youmingen
dc.contributor.authorYap, Hooi Mingen
dc.contributor.authorYuk, Hyun-Gyunen
dc.contributor.authorGutiérrez, Ramona Alikiiteagaen
dc.contributor.authorNg, Lee Chingen
dc.identifier.citationChau, M. L., Aung, K. T., Hapuarachchi, H. C., Lee, P. S. V., Lim, P. Y., Kang, J. S. L., ...Ng, L. C. (2017). Microbial survey of ready-to-eat salad ingredients sold at retail reveals the occurrence and the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes Sequence Types 2 and 87 in pre-packed smoked salmon. BMC Microbiology, 17(1), 46-. doi: 10.1186/s12866-017-0956-zen
dc.description.abstractBackground: As the preparation of salads involves extensive handling and the use of uncooked ingredients, they are particularly vulnerable to microbial contamination. This study aimed to determine the microbial safety and quality of pre-packed salads and salad bar ingredients sold in Singapore, so as to identify public health risks that could arise from consuming salads and to determine areas for improvement in the management of food safety. Results: The most frequently encountered organism in pre-packed salad samples was B. cereus, particularly in pasta salads (33.3%, 10/30). The most commonly detected organism in salad bar ingredients was L. monocytogenes, in particular seafood ingredients (44.1%, 15/34), largely due to contaminated smoked salmon. Further investigation showed that 21.6% (37/171) of the pre-packed smoked salmon sold in supermarkets contained L. monocytogenes. Significantly higher prevalence of L. monocytogenes and higher Standard Plate Count were detected in smoked salmon at salad bars compared to pre-packed smoked salmon in supermarkets, which suggested multiplication of the organism as the products move down the supply chain. Further molecular analysis revealed that L. monocytogenes Sequence Type (ST) 2 and ST87 were present in a particular brand of pre-packed salmon products over a 4-year period, implying a potential persistent contamination problem at the manufacturing level. Conclusions: Our findings highlighted a need to improve manufacturing and retail hygiene processes as well as to educate vulnerable populations to avoid consuming food prone to L. monocytogenes contamination.en
dc.format.extent13 p.en
dc.relation.ispartofseriesBMC Microbiologyen
dc.rights© 2017 The Author(s). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.en
dc.subjectDRNTU::Science::Biological sciencesen
dc.subjectMicrobial Safety and Qualityen
dc.titleMicrobial survey of ready-to-eat salad ingredients sold at retail reveals the occurrence and the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes Sequence Types 2 and 87 in pre-packed smoked salmonen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Biological Sciencesen
dc.description.versionPublished versionen
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