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dc.contributor.authorNayak, Tapas R.en
dc.contributor.authorWang, Haoen
dc.contributor.authorPant, Aakanshaen
dc.contributor.authorZheng, Minruien
dc.contributor.authorJunginger, Hansen
dc.contributor.authorGoh, Wei Jiangen
dc.contributor.authorLee, Choon Keongen
dc.contributor.authorZou, Shuien
dc.contributor.authorAlonso, Sylvieen
dc.contributor.authorCzarny, Bertranden
dc.contributor.authorStorm, Gerten
dc.contributor.authorSow, Chorng Hauren
dc.contributor.authorChengkuo, Leeen
dc.contributor.authorPastorin, Giorgiaen
dc.identifier.citationNayak, T. R., Wang, H., Pant, A., Zheng, M., Junginger, H., Goh, W. J., . . . Pastorin, G. (2017). ZnO Nano-Rod Devices for Intradermal Delivery and Immunization. Nanomaterials, 7(6), 147-. doi:10.3390/nano7060147en
dc.description.abstractIntradermal delivery of antigens for vaccination is a very attractive approach since the skin provides a rich network of antigen presenting cells, which aid in stimulating an immune response. Numerous intradermal techniques have been developed to enhance penetration across the skin. However, these methods are invasive and/or affect the skin integrity. Hence, our group has devised zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-rods for non-destructive drug delivery. Chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate aligned nano-rods on ZnO pre-coated silicon chips. The nano-rods’ length and diameter were found to depend on the temperature, time, quality of sputtered silicon chips, etc. Vertically aligned ZnO nano-rods with lengths of 30–35 µm and diameters of 200–300 nm were selected for in vitro human skin permeation studies using Franz cells with Albumin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) absorbed on the nano-rods. Fluorescence and confocal studies on the skin samples showed FITC penetration through the skin along the channels formed by the nano-rods. Bradford protein assay on the collected fluid samples indicated a significant quantity of Albumin-FITC in the first 12 h. Low antibody titres were observed with immunisation on Balb/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA) antigen coated on the nano-rod chips. Nonetheless, due to the reduced dimensions of the nano-rods, our device offers the additional advantage of excluding the simultaneous entrance of microbial pathogens. Taken together, these results showed that ZnO nano-rods hold the potential for a safe, non-invasive, and painless intradermal drug delivery.en
dc.format.extent12 p.en
dc.rights© 2017 by The Author(s). Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
dc.subjectZnO Nano-rodsen
dc.subjectSkin Immunizationen
dc.titleZnO nano-rod devices for intradermal delivery and immunizationen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Materials Science & Engineeringen
dc.contributor.schoolLee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine)en
dc.description.versionPublished versionen
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