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Title: Structure and possible function of a G-quadruplex in the long terminal repeat of the proviral HIV-1 genome
Authors: De Nicola, Beatrice
Lech, Christopher J.
Heddi, Brahim
Regmi, Sagar
Frasson, Ilaria
Perrone, Rosalba
Richter, Sara N.
Phan, Anh Tuân
Keywords: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
Long Terminal Repeat (LTR)
Issue Date: 2016
Source: De Nicola, B., Lech, C. J., Heddi, B., Regmi, S., Frasson, I., Perrone, R., . . . Phan, A. T. (2016). Structure and possible function of a G-quadruplex in the long terminal repeat of the proviral HIV-1 genome. Nucleic Acids Research, 44(13), 6442-6451. doi:10.1093/nar/gkw432
Series/Report no.: Nucleic Acids Research
Abstract: The long terminal repeat (LTR) of the proviral human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genome is integral to virus transcription and host cell infection. The guanine-rich U3 region within the LTR promoter, previously shown to form G-quadruplex structures, represents an attractive target to inhibit HIV transcription and replication. In this work, we report the structure of a biologically relevant G-quadruplex within the LTR promoter region of HIV-1. The guanine-rich sequence designated LTR-IV forms a well-defined structure in physiological cationic solution. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of this sequence reveals a parallel-stranded G-quadruplex containing a single-nucleotide thymine bulge, which participates in a conserved stacking interaction with a neighboring single-nucleotide adenine loop. Transcription analysis in a HIV-1 replication competent cell indicates that the LTR-IV region may act as a modulator of G-quadruplex formation in the LTR promoter. Consequently, the LTR-IV G-quadruplex structure presented within this work could represent a valuable target for the design of HIV therapeutics.
ISSN: 0305-1048
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkw432
Rights: © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:SPMS Journal Articles

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