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dc.contributor.authorLook, Carolen
dc.contributor.authorCousins, James N.en
dc.contributor.authorWong, Kian F.en
dc.contributor.authorRaghunath, Bindiya Lakshmien
dc.contributor.authorChee, Michael W. L.en
dc.identifier.citationCousins, J. N., Wong, K. F., Raghunath, B. L., Look, C., & Chee, M. W. L. (2019). The long-term memory benefits of a daytime nap compared with cramming. Sleep, 42(1), 1-7. doi:10.1093/sleep/zsy207en
dc.description.abstractStudy Objectives: Daytime naps benefit long-term memory relative to taking a break and remaining awake. However, the use of naps as a practical way to improve learning has not been examined, in particular, how memory following a nap compares with spending the equivalent amount of time cramming. Methods: Young adults learned detailed factual knowledge in sessions that flanked 1 hr spent napping (n = 27), taking a break (n = 27), or cramming that information (n = 30). Recall was examined 30 min and 1 week after learning. Results: When tested 30 min after learning, cramming and napping led to significantly better memory than taking a break. After a week, napping maintained this significant advantage, but cramming did not. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the longer-term benefits of napping for retention of memoranda akin to what students encounter daily and encourage more widespread adoption of napping in education.en
dc.description.sponsorshipNRF (Natl Research Foundation, S’pore)en
dc.description.sponsorshipNMRC (Natl Medical Research Council, S’pore)en
dc.format.extent7 p.en
dc.rights© 2018 Sleep Research Society. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society]. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact
dc.subjectSocial sciences::Psychologyen
dc.titleThe long-term memory benefits of a daytime nap compared with crammingen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Social Sciencesen
dc.description.versionPublished versionen
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