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Title: Integration of membrane bioreactor and nanofiltration for the treatment process of real hospital wastewater in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Authors: Tran, Thanh
Hoang, Luong
Ho, Huu Loc
Nguyen, Thanh Binh
Le, Duc Anh
Lam, Tri Duc
Nguyen, Duy Chinh
Hoang, Anh Tuan
Do, Trung Sy
Nguyen, Trinh Duy
Bach, Long Giang
Keywords: Membrane Bioreactor
DRNTU::Engineering::Environmental engineering
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Tran, T., Nguyen, T. B., Ho, H. L., Le, D. A., Lam, T. D., Nguyen, D. C., . . . Bach, L. G. (2019). Integration of membrane bioreactor and nanofiltration for the treatment process of real hospital wastewater in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Processes, 7(3), 123-. doi:10.3390/pr7030123
Series/Report no.: Processes
Abstract: Hospital wastewater contains pharmaceutical residues, chemicals, and pathogens that cause coloration and nourish pathogenic microorganisms. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a medical wastewater treatment system at Military Hospital 175 (Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) that combined a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system with nanofiltration (NF). The influent of the system was the wastewater discharged from the operating rooms of the hospital. The system has a capacity of 50 L/day and operates at three organic load rates (OLR) of 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 kgCOD/m3day (COD: Chemical oxygen demand), in which each load rate operates for 40 days. The results showed that most nutritional criteria generally achieved positive results. Specifically, the average COD removal was shown to be consistently high throughout the three phases at 94%, 93.3%, and 92.7%, respectively. For removal of nitrogen, the system demonstrated efficiencies of 75%, 79%, and 83%, respectively, to three phases. The log removal value (LRV) for Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria were higher than four throughout the study period. The average removal efficiency for color and total iron was approximately 98% and 99%, respectively. The water quality after treatment, especially after NF, meets the Vietnamese standard of grade A. The arrangement in which the MBR preceded NF was also found to limit the amount of soil and solids entering subsequent treatment, which therefore improved the efficiency of NF, as demonstrated by the stability of post-NF transmembrane pressures throughout three cycles renewed by two backwashes.
ISSN: 2227-9717
DOI: 10.3390/pr7030123
Research Centres: Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute 
Rights: © 2019 The Author(s). Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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